Friday, October 28, 2011

Grading schools and teachers

The N.C. school report cards for 2011 are out.  They're always a good source of data on districts,  traditional public schools and charters.  I haven't had time to geek out and run comparisons yet,  but I figured I'd give my data-savvy readers a heads up in case you've got a slow weekend.  If you're new to these, remember to click the tabs for student performance,  safety and teachers.

And if you've got even more time, remember the WTVI interviews with school board candidates will air from 4-6 p.m. Sunday (or you can watch them online at your leisure).

And on Tuesday, WFAE will hold a live panel discussion on "How Should We Grade Our Teachers?" It's at Northwest School of the Arts, 1415 Beatties Ford Road, from 7-8:30 p.m., and will feature CMS teachers, the human resources chief and the director of the Charlotte Teachers Institute. Make reservations if you plan to go, or follow on Twitter at #WFAEPubCon.


therestofthestory said...

Ann, I started scanning a few of these I had heard about recently like Devonshire. I checked out Thomasboro and a few others. Overall, I'd say budget cuts had no negative effects on performance but my analysis has a long way to go yet. Based upon my previous statement, a theory of mine I came to after looking at 4 years of scores and per pupil spending is that in most Title 1 schools, we have far surpassed the point of diminishing returns. Or more simply said, you can continue to cut budget and teacher/pupil ratios and student performance will still go up. Students are swallowing as hard as they can but from the firehose so slowing the flow down to a garden hose is no loss.

therestofthestory said...

Ann, who at CMS can I call to find out when they will release the per pupil spending at each school for last school year?

Ann Doss Helms said...

I just popped an email to public information to ask. I think they've generally done that as part of their own budget planning; don't believe it's mandatory. Will let you know what I hear.

Wiley Coyote said...

While you're at it, get the newest FRL numbers.

I inquired about it over 4 weeks ago and was told they would be released in October, which leaves us until Monday.

I don't know how you can get 20 day attendance numbers without knowing who "qualifies" for FRL.

Wiley Coyote said...


It seems CMS and the Chicken Littles have gotten themselves in a pickle.

Crying for years about needing more money, the need to build more schools and we can't make cuts or dire consequences will happen.

We've closed schools, eliminated positions and yet according to CMS, the "achievement gap" is closing, graduation rates are up and we won an award for it.

It just goes to show the possibility exists to gut this system, revamp it and make it much more efficient than it is and has been.

Mudd E. Diction said...

Teachers work with the resources provided to them by CMS. CMS is focused on making teachers the culprits when CMS results are just as much a reflection of senior level administrators. The Charlotte-Mecklenburg community is not so shallow to believe our teachers are the reason so many schools have the same symptoms. The problem is systematic, not localized. CMS should be investing public resources in a way that will identify and resolve the real problem with learning at CMS. Targeting teachers is not the answer. CMS needs a home grown superintendent that can think critically and independently in much the same way we all hope our children will.

Anonymous said...

We in cms no longer believe that Ann Clark is that homegrown solution. She has imbibed deeply of the broad koolaid, so deeply that she actually believes their message of business first children never.

Anonymous said...

I hope you all have heard the story aired on wbt radio yesterday where Pete Gorman calls the CMS Board "crazy".

People should NOT vote for Tim Morgan and in two years we should put up serious, thoughtful, knowledgable candidates and vote out all of the existing district representatives.

Wiley Coyote said...

Anon 11:02...

At least Gorman spoke the truth about the BOE...

They are and have been crazy for years...

Ann Doss Helms said...

Here's the link to the audio clip (it worked for me on Firefox but not Internet Explorer)

I'll follow up on this Monday. Bill James is saying this catches Gorman saying Bright Beginnings is "the worst," but I heard him say that about after-school care, not pre-K.

Anonymous said...

Dr. Gorman was not necessarily referring to all school board members. I suspect that it depends on one's point of view who the crazies are. He could also could have been referring to the PC that is demanded of the board--how they have to tip-toe around sensitive issues, like student achievement and discipline, and kow-tow to the diversity god rather than conducting a straight forward business like meeting. I actually think Eric has shortened the meetings considerably as compared to previous board chairs. But too many members still prefer to ramble on and do not seem to be up to speed on issues being discussed. It's up to the voters to take care of that!

Anonymous said...

Typically, narcissists believe anyone who speaks against what they want are crazy...

Anonymous said...

I can not believe it is November and CMS has not released school budgets so teachers can purchase basic supplies for their classrooms. Teachers are operating on fumes! Teachers can no longer afford to feed their families and supply the needs of their classrooms. CMS should be ashamed of themselves!

Larry said...

Spending per student can be found on CMS's website and a spread sheet after a hard search, but it is hard to read, so I like to send people to this one to see it:

Wiley Coyote said...

I heard him say after school was the worst.

Only stands to reason that Bright Beginnings could be just as bad..

After all, there is no data to support the program and Gorman wanted it gutted.

Anonymous said...

TROTS, just something to think about...While the numbers might indicate that the budget crisis has created no negative impact in the classroom, I would suggest that if teaching conditions continue as they are, there could be a mass exodus of teachers. You can only take the stress of the added responsibilities (extra hours, larger class sizes, more paperwork, changes in how teachers are evaluated at the state level) with no relief for so long. I worked in the private sector for 10+ years and never had to take work home. As it is now, I'm working 80 hours a week just to keep up.

Anonymous said...

TROTS, just something to think about...While the numbers might indicate that the budget crisis has created no negative impact in the classroom, I would suggest that if teaching conditions continue as they are, there could be a mass exodus of teachers. You can only take the stress of the added responsibilities (extra hours, larger class sizes, more paperwork, changes in how teachers are evaluated at the state level) with no relief for so long. I worked in the private sector for 10+ years and never had to take work home. As it is now, I'm working 80 hours a week just to keep up.

Wiley Coyote said...

Anon 4:36...

Sorry, I'm not buying the 80 hours per week and as far as a "mass exodus" of teachers, you're about 40 years behind the mass exodus of white, black and bright flight students and families from public schools.

Larry said...

Here was the take on Bright Beginnings by the Observer and it makes all the difference in if you read it.

Why has CMS not followed up on the success or failure of it and proven it to us?

Anonymous said...

Wylie, you're welcome to come and spend the week with me. I arrive each day at 7:00 am, leave at 5:00 or 5:30 pm, with a 30 minute "lunch break." I work a couple of hours each night and at least 10 hours on the weekend on paperwork, planning and grading.

Anonymous said...

Wylie's ex was a teacher so he knows. At least he tells us he know?

Anonymous said...

Brudda Coyote,
Just make teaching a hourly minimum wage job with no overtime. It's the political manifesto for both political parties. In an additional attempt to eradicate the residue of the former middle class, close all middle schools and supply underage migrant labor to Alabama as legal minimum wage labor. It's better than the current Career and Technical Education offerings to grades 6-8 in CMS and a sure dent in the FRL numbers.
Call it the new Piece(work) Corps.

Wiley Coyote said...

Yes, she was and still is.

Never did she nor any of her friends work 80 hours per week.

My suggestion is to go back into the private sector if you can't handle it, otherwise, you get no sympathy from me.

Shall I do the math and get the equiv of 80 hours per week for 190 days you work versus people who work full time 365 days per year?

From the Bureau of Labor Statistics:

Full-time public school teachers work on average 36.5 hours per week during weeks that they are working.

By comparison, white-collar workers (excluding sales) work 39.4 hours, and professional specialty and technical workers work 39.0 hours per week. Private school teachers work 38.3 hours per week.

Anonymous said...

@Wile.E. --there also is no evidence supporting, but plenty against pay for performance and Gorman wanted to push, push forward with that... If you posit that he wanted to follow the studies regarding Bright Beginnings, then why not follow the studies on all of the other items he pushed? Well, like any politician--he only pays attention to what suits his purpose...and many of the BOE members and upper admin followed right along with him.

Wiley Coyote said...

Anon 6:46...

It's comical some quote "he says his ex was a teacher", they can recall that but nothing else I have posted here.

I have stated many times I am against the current PFP as CMS is proposing because it is a waste of money and will accomplish nothing.

I have also stated many times I feel the vast majority of teachers are GOOD teachers.

Also, I have been vocal that the state could have come up with money to give teachers the back pay they are due.

What I won't support are whiney-azz teachers who claim to be working 80 hours a week and expect some sort of sympathy for it.

Anonymous said...

After school isn't the best at CMS. Maybe because they can't afford it. Free lunch also equal free after school care. Maybe if they required all who use it to pay, things would improve. I think they are doing the best they can with their limited resources. I pulled my child out of it and found another solution for afterschool.

therestofthestory said...

Larry, those are numbers from 2009-2010 school year and I already have that spreadsheet.

4:36 pm, yes I do realize that point. I am refering to what myself as a schol board memeber would do to get you teachers out from under this craziness Dr. Gorman has had you on since his second year here. I never saw a Mr. Hyde Dr. Jeckel act like Dr. Gorman pulled from comments he made during his first year here to his metamorphisis during his second year.

It was incredible!

Anonymous said...

Attacking individual posters is not helpful. I disagree with what Wiley says often, but he actually sources his arguments. He ought to run for the Board.

The minimum a high school teacher works in my school would be five days a week from 6:45 to 2:30. Each Wednesday there is a staff meeting from 1-2 hours. If that was all a teacher worked (no planning, grading, tutoring, meeting, sponsoring clubs etc) that would be 39 hours 45 minutes to 40 hours 45 minutes. Most of the teachers I know put in a minimum of an extra hour a day, and many are there until 5 or 6 every day.
Just some actual facts to help.

therestofthestory said...

Okay first pass of analysis is done. I have been out of town at a family function today so I am posting my first analysis now. I track State, CMS, and Wake, white, black, ED and NED scores. That is 12 categories for those you wondering. 11 of the 12 categories went up in scores. Guess which one did not. I know that is a rhetorical question because it simply proves how CMS is closing the achieveemnt gap. CMS white scores went down.

The only score that went down was CMS White.

The only score that went down was CMS White.

The only score that went down was CMS White.

The only score that went down was CMS White.

The only score that went down was CMS White.

The only score that went down was CMS White.

The only score that went down was CMS White.

The only score that went down was CMS White.

The only score that went down was CMS White.

Fuzzy Math and Teaching Hours said...

Manipulation of numbers is an art form within the CMS administration. The Board should be wise to this, not just one or too on the Board. Shave off the top to make the bottom look better, move students around to make school scores look better, tell opening of schools success stories without disclosing opening of schools failures, set up teacher performance goals when the testing battery to achieve the goal has not been set up or tested itself…

Wylie… give the teachers a break. 80 hours per week might be a bit high on average for the normal teaching week. However, we should agree teachers work on average more than the 40 hours they are paid by the taxpayers to work. This may be a good performance measure for CMS to track. How many successful teachers put in their 40 and then hit the golf course or get their nails done? Do we agree it is not too many?

But then again if they are teaching in the south of the County where students come to school prepared to learn their job might be a bit less challenging. How does proximity factor into the CMS testing money pit?

Wiley Coyote said...


I could care less whether a teacher works 100 hours a week or 20. It's immaterial.

Teachers are contracted to work 190 days per year and there are many teachers for whatever the reason(s) work more hours than others. It's that way in most professions, some worker harder and more hours than their peers.

Whinnng about how much time you put in and expect sympathy, at least from me, is not going to happen.

Again, teachers -some, may work more than 40 hours per week but they also only work 190 days per year. A teacher WOULD have to work 80 hours a week for 190 days to equal what someone in the pivate sector works at 40 hours a week for 365 days.

I'll be out of town in California for 7 days next week. 7 days away from my family and the ability to do work around the house that needs to get done. I have two weeks vacation left that I will most likely not use up due to having to go to the northwest for a week in December.

Am I whining about it? NO, because it's part of my job and what I get paid for and what I love to do.

Anonymous said...

I am required by my principal to be at my school a minimum of 41 hours per week. (40 plus 1 hour faculty meeting after school each Wednesday.) I have to call the office for coverage so I can use the rest room once per day. I spend my 20 minute lunch standing up supervising students in the cafeteria. I put in between 70 and 80 hours per week as all lesson planning, assessment, grading, learn new curriculum and technologies, mentoring new teachers, and advising student clubs is done on my time. My so called planning period is spent in meetings. I use hundreds of my own cell phone minutes making calls to parents as there is no phone in my classroom. I have already spend $500 of my own money on supplies. I use my own home computer, paper and printer to produce materials for class. I spend at least $50 in gas money each month driving to required after school curriculum meetings. I am forced to take an unpaid leave of absence during the holidays and during the summer. Please show me a double master's degreed business executive with 20 + years of experience who works under these same conditions for $55,000 per year. This is the reality for CMS teachers. Please do not quote generalized statistics if you are not currently a teacher.

Wiley Coyote said...

Anon 10:57..

You get paid $55,000 per year. You are not "unpaid" at all.

It is up to you to manage your money throughout the year.

I suggest you get a landline and make the calls from your home, that way, you don't have to "use your minutes". My oh my what did people do before cell phones?

I also suggest you do not spend your own money for supplies. If the school cannot provide them or you can't get them from the thousands in donations made to the district each year, then don't buy them.

Again, if you don't like your working conditions and you have all that education, I suggest you find a job in the private sector that will pay you what you think you are worth so you will be much happier in your work life.

Those are generalizations. Those are the facts.

Wiley Coyote said...

aren't generalizations...

Anonymous said...

I understand why you are no longer married to a teacher.

Wiley Coyote said...

Anon 12:08...

My wife taught in some of the pooerest schools in SC. For several years, she and 3 other women drove from Columbia to Orangeburg, SC, which is about a 90 mile roundtrip.

Most of her classes were over 90% minority.

We spent our own money as well on the same materials you say you pay for out of your pocket.

At the time, my wife made more money than I did, but we never complained about what we spent or the extra time given to students.

A number of her friends complained every waking minute of the day, like you.

My wife and I divorcing had nothing to do with her job or being a teacher so, you might want to try again with your assumptions.

All though my son's years at CMS, my wife and I had a standing offer that any child who didn't have any maerials for school or if they went on a field trip and a cost was involved, we would pay for any child who couldn't afford to go.

I fully support teachers as I have previously stated.

I feel sorry for your students having to stare everyday at that huge chip on your shoulder when they should be paying attention the subject at hand...

Anonymous said...

Making calls from home would still be on the teacher's time and the landline is still an expense to the teacher.

Part of those eight weeks of unpaid time in the summer is often spent going to workshops to earn renewal credit for their teaching license.

Many of the things teachers spend their own money on are not just enhancements to their classroom that will help their students succeed. They are for basic supplies that the school system does not provide and without them the quality of educaton would suffer.

Teachers don't have the luxury of downtime that folks in the private sector do. For the 7.5 hours students are at school, teachers are "on." All the planning, grading, copying, conferences, and phone calls have to be done before or after school. They cannot go in their office and close the door if they need privacy. They do not get a lunch hour or the opportunity to leave their work environment to eat their lunch. They have to ask someone if they can go to the bathroom because they cannot leave students unattended.

Why is it that when folks in the private sector describe their working conditions it is considered stating the facts, but when teachers do it you call it whining. And what exactly was it that 4:36 said that sounded like whining anyway? I couldn't find it.

Anonymous said...

Please ignore Wiley...we get he hates frl fraud and wants something done about. We get he is so "for teachers" and hates when they whine. Great, Move aong, nothing to see here. Larry B or Wiley, just can't give them any more time.

Anonymous said...

Trots - PR Pete's metamorphosis was due to his desire to talk to vyone -and find out who was for his agenda and who was against. He cared not for cms, just how he could best institute his Broad agenda. He left when it was clear the master of PR errors with h546. The pfp bill, who know the one where Pete Forgot the People?

Wiley Coyote said...

Anon 12:59...

from anon 4:36..

You can only take the stress of the added responsibilities (extra hours, larger class sizes, more paperwork, changes in how teachers are evaluated at the state level) with no relief for so long. I worked in the private sector for 10+ years and never had to take work home. As it is now, I'm working 80 hours a week just to keep up.

I merely stated I didn't buy the 80 hours per week, which led to the discussion.

Also, people need to understand that the FRL directly affects a teacher's job in several ways.

The fraud makes the pool of "at-risk" students much larger than it should be, thereby causing more money to be spent that shouldn't be and more testing and paperwork that teachers have to deal with.

Teachers should be incensed at the BOE for implementing a pay to play sports scheme, going out and begging for money so little Johnny can play a sport because of his FRL designation, sucking funds from parents who "can afford to pay", while teachers like the one above stating they pay for stuff out of their own pockets plus haven't had a raise in 3 years. But hoooray! Little Johnny can play a sport because Rick Hendrick and Michael Jordan gave half a million dollars to them - and not to teachers to buy school supplies.

Also, I don't buy the "luxury of down time" argument. I have no "down time" at my job. Maybe I do get a lunch hour or don't have to raise my hand to potty, but each experience is the nature of the job, which I said earlier; either accept it IS part of your job or seek employment elsewhere.

Regarding phone calls and emails, they can be done after school but also during the day as well.

I had many communications over the years with teachers during the day by phone and email, some during school hours and some afterwards, so I don't see why you're so special and can't accomplish that feat.

What do you do the other 7 hours after the 9 hours per day you claim to put in at school?

And to Anon 6:59....thanks for letting us know you're one of those with their head stuck in the dirt and who will keep the status quo that has failed public education over the past 40 years going on for the forseeable future...

Vote Jeff Wise said...

I think almost all teachers understand what they're signing up for when they take a job (i.e., short lunch breaks, long hours, meetings, etc.) in a school.

Beginning teachers may not and that's a factor why they leave so quickly.

And I understand the concern about not being paid for the extra hours, however any salaried worker also (generally) does not get OT pay. One of my staffers was put on a fast-track project and is averaging 60 hours a week for the past month, but gets zero OT pay for his efforts.

It happens, it's not great, but it happens.

The biggest difference between him and teacher in terms of working environments is we do provide the basic resources he needs to do his work, otherwise we lose money and profit and the doors close.

Teachers don't always get those resources and sadly, it's going to be an issue for a long, long time.

In 14 years of teaching band I've seen my wife purchase with her own funds, music, instruments, paper, pencils, valve oil, drum sticks and more. This is beyond the fundraisers she does every year which go to buy many of those same supplies.

And that is frustrating, neither of us have had a raise in 4 years - like many of you, and our insurance costs have gone up - like many of you.

The kicker though is every year she has a handful of students who "found" music to be the subject that keeps them interested in learning, or helps them become better at math or reading and so on.

It's what she's meant to do and in my biased opinion, she's great at it.

So a very long story short: by running for school board, I'm interested in doing whatever I can to support these teachers and make their jobs a little easier to do so they can better do what they do best. Teach.

therestofthestory said...

Thanks for the comment Jeff. I would like to add something to one of your paragraphs.

"..The kicker though is every year she has a handful of students who "found" music to be the subject that keeps them interested in learning, or helps them become better at math or reading and so on..."

CMS however expects the teacher to make the students "find" math and reading for learning.

So goes the old saying, you can lead a horse to water but you can not make it drink.

Only when welfare gets cut off will these "horses" get thirsty enough to drink.

therestofthestory said...

Curious that Wake has had more success in closing their achievement gap the last 2 years than CMS has had and CMS won the award. And CMS closes their gap by lowering the top end rather than allowing them to find thier full potential.

Go Home Wiley said...

Education is not only a right it is a requirement mandated by law. CMS and the Mecklenburg taxpayers are obliged to provide an education for our children.

Unlike Wiley, I do not think it is best for our children to tell teachers not to pay for materials and supplies for their classrooms just because CMS refuses to buy them.

CMS is a prime example of how right to work laws are really not right to work laws at all. They are work under oppressed conditions, expect to fail or get out laws.

Wiley's, you can always leave CMS, approach shows that whether he cared for children in a previous marriage or not he does not care for the children now.

Good teachers put in extra hours, their own cash, their hearts and make every effort to help children excel.

What CMS test catches that?

Wiley Coyote said...

Go Home Wiley...

You seem to be missing some vital information in your little retort.

Go back and read my posts because every "point" you brought up is incorrect.

Try again.

Wiley Coyote said...

Vote Jeff Wise...

If you want your wife to not have to pay for things, I suggest if you get elected, vote down wasteful programs like Bright Beginnings, something the current BOE didn't have the guts to do.

That's a $22 million dollar a year black hole Mecklenburg County contributes to that doesn't work.

Imagine how much supplies $11 million would buy for teachers?

Regarding students, it IS their responsibility to provide their own supplies and NOT the school or the teacher.

Since the entire public education system has now become nothing more than one huge entitlement driven by waste and fraud system, until we do an in-depth audit to ensure those who truly need the help ARE helped and those gaming the system kicked off, more and more Federal and State monies will continue to be wasted.

Also, I seem to never hear anyone talk about Classroom Central, where teachers who teach in high poverty schools and kids who qualify can go and get FREE school supplies.

Last year, 75,000 out of 135,000 "qualified" for benefits. That's 56% of the student population.

Still waiting on this years numbers. Should be interesting.

Anonymous said...

It's been many years since I taught in a classroom (over 30). But when I started teaching right out of college (special ed-multiply handicapped kids) I knew from the get-go that I would not be working in an office type environment--would not be going out to lunch, not taking personal phone calls during the day, and would have limited bathroom breaks. One thing my work environment did have was lots of camaraderie. We all worked hard, including coming in early and staying late, but we had a lot of fun together too. Back then we would grumble about the administration--nothing is ever perfect, that's for sure--but we I don't think we were mean-spirited or vicious about it. Were we treated like professionals? I don't know that we ever thought about that--the parents (the majority being low income) all certainly appreciated us and most, but not all, wanted to do whatever they could to help their children succeed. By the way, my starting salary was $5000.

Going back even farther in time, I remember as a child living in a newly growing suburban town. The one elementary school was very old--I'm sure not the greatest work environment for teachers-- and a new building was in the process of being constructed. My second grade year we spent half the year in an unused school in an adjoining town until the new local school was completed. Again an old building, probably not the best of conditions. But parents and teachers understood that this was temporary and didn't complain (according to my mother who was on the school board). I can just envision what the headlines and blogs would have to say about such a situation today--poor planning, horrible learning conditions, etc.

Yes, yes, I know I'm "old" and out of touch with the times, but I do think that in Charlotte we have allowed education to become way too politicized.

Anonymous said...

Oh, I also forgot to add to the above that when I started teaching my school was not ready, just as had occurred when I was a child. We spent a month teaching our handicapped classes in the cafeteria of a nearby school. Each class had one long cafeteria table. Teachers and students all survived. Can you imagine what would be said about that today!

therestofthestory said...

Pretty sad when a family wil not part with $3 for a pack of pencils, a notebook, and a pack of paper.

Yes and I do know about Classroom Central. I volunteered there a few years ago.

But then again, it is only another example of letting parents "shirk" their responsibility of raising children they bring into the world.

Wiley Coyote said...


What's even more sad are things on the request list like Kleenex, hand sanitizer, etc.

It's gotten to be like tipping.

They expect you to just pony up.

therestofthestory said...

You are right WC. I personally support one classroom with these items and I have pitched in for books from the book fair, etc. The teacher feels she has a good handle on the kids really in need of stuff versus those that are working the system. I am more than happy to help the kids and I help the teacher so she does not have to bear too much burden with the rest.

Vote Jeff Wise said...

To Wiley,

We don't mind ponying up for some supplies and other things, we know there are some students who truly need the help.

And where I work day-to-day we did a service day with Classroom Central (and a few other orgs) that was eye-opening and rewarding.

Now I understand your frustration with budget issues and certainly do not wish to discount them. I agree that there's much discussion to be had about various spending programs.

My perception is the bureaucratic mindset has permeated enough of the system that a fair amount of folks don't realize they're following it.

My worry is how that gets fixed. It's somewhat easy on paper, harder in reality.


Wiley Coyote said...


I realize my position on wasteful spending is a dead horse and that it would take a Presidential mandate or a national riot, much like OWS, to get the Feds to reign in spending and eliminate fraud.
Locals won't do it because the Feds don't require them to.

Then you have the Feds who pick and choose which programs to go after, like Medicare and Medicaid when it suits an agenda item, like Obamacare.

It still bears repeating everytime some "community activist" or local politician screams "we need more money for the children", when we could have plenty if the money went to the right places.

We continue to dump more waste and fraud on top of what is already there, expanding government to keep up with it.

I'll keep posting the ratios to keep those activists annoyed:

135,000 students, 75,000 on FRL.

Still waiting on this years numbers.

From the NCES:

In 2009, some 19 percent of 5- to 17-year-olds were in families living in poverty, compared with 15 percent in 2000 and 17 percent in 1990.

At the state level, child poverty rates across the United States ranged from 10 to 32 percent in 2009.

Do the math. Even at 32%, CMS would have 43,000 students qualify, yet we have 75,000. Go to 40%. That still leaves a little over 20,000 that are questionable.

Think of the number of supplies or teacher's aids that could be had for that difference in fraud.

That's how I look at it, not with my head buried in the dirt screaming "we need more money".